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The ADDIE Approach

Page history last edited by Yahaira Rodriguez 10 years, 10 months ago

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ADDIE Approach


It is well known that “ADDIE is an acronym for Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, and Evaluate” (Branch, 2009). Dick and Carey revised ADDIE process to reflect the systemic nature of the instructional design process. The ADDIE utilizes not only an Input-Process-Output paradigm, but utilizes a systematic approach to the paradigm. Because instruction is student centered, complex and systematic, ADDIE allows the instructional designers to pay special attention to the learner context, environment, and needs, facilitating the process of identifying effective instructional goals and analysis. This step is crucial to the effectiveness and validity of instruction and instructional design.


The ADDIE design approach revolves around the following five components or instructional design procedures;


1. Analysis – during this process the instructional designer analyzes the possible reasons for a performance gap. As we know, there are many reasons for a particular performance gap.  Instructional designers shall focus on performance gaps associate to lack of knowledge or skills.


2. Design – during the design process instructional designers works with the expected performances and testing methods. This is the stage to identify possible task inventory, performance objectives, testing strategies and ROI or return of investment of the instructional opportunity.


3. Development- during the development component, instructional designers focus their work on the content of the instructional opportunity, including the development of learner and teacher resources, formative revisions, and pilot projects (if applicable).


4. Implementation- during this process, instructional designers focus on preparing the learning environment, in other words; on preparing the learners and teachers for the instructional opportunity and the learning experience.


5. Evaluation- this process focus on evaluation efforts for the instructional opportunity. Evaluation efforts may include the evaluation of the instructional opportunity and the identification of evaluation tools and criteria.



The figure below illustrates ADDIE common instructional designs procedures:


Figure 1. ADDIE instructional design procedures. Robert Maribe Branch. Instructional Design: The ADDIE Approach. P.9 (2009). Kindle Edition.



ADDIE has been known as a way to organize the common procedures associated with instructional design (Branch, 2009). The ADDIE approach has been implemented in diverse fields of study and organizations, including the design of second life activities for online learners (Wang & Hsu, 2009), revision of instructional opportunities, redesign of online courses, among many other uses within the instructional design field. As part of the redesign process of a higher education course, authors stated that “the systematic attention to each step in ADDIE provided a well-organized process to help guide the team throughout the redesign process” (Shibley, Shank & Shibley, 2011). When implementing ADDIE approach, many revisions can be made to a particular instructional design, includingthe creation of online class guides, associated learning objects (multimedia course content resources), and collaborative base groups” ” (Shibley, Shank & Shibley, 2011). Although ADDIE approach has been a key factor of success in the implementation and completion of projects, studies in the areas of project management and instructional design suggests that ADDIE is not enough and the acquisition of project management skills and competency are crucial to complete projects “on time, on budget and in conformance with client expectations” (Van Rooji, 2010). 



Implementing the ADDIE Approach


When an instructional designer is utilizing the ADDIE approach, following questions should be addressed:


1. Analysis – Below are few key questions that can be asked during the ANALYSIS component:

• What are the organizational and instructional opportunity goals?

• What are the instructional objectives?

• What are the reasons for the performance gap?

• Who are the stakeholders?

• Who are the learners?

• What resources are available for the instructional designers?

• What are the possible delivery methods?

• What are the anticipated benefits and costs of the instructional unit?


2. Design – Below are few key questions that can be asked during the DESIGN component:

• How do the organizational and instructional goals are translate into specific learning/performance objectives?

• What assessment tools will be utilized?

• What are the tasks that need to be completed?

• What are the pre-existing or pre-requisite knowledge/tasks?

• What will be the instructional opportunity sequence?

• What is the anticipated ROI for the instructional unit?


3. Development- Below are a few key questions that can be asked during the DEVELOPMENT component:

• What content must be developed?

• What trainer or learner guides must be developed?

• What technology, media and other tools would be needed?

• What formative revisions need to be conducted?

• A pilot would be needed?


4. Implementation- Below are a few key questions that can be asked during the IMPLEMENTATION component:

• What additional materials are needed?

• How can we prepare learners and instructors for the instructional opportunity?

• Do we need any technology infrastructure or services?

• Are pre-post assessments available?

• What type of preliminary feedback we need from the participants?


5. Evaluation- Below are a few key questions that can be asked during the EVALUATION component:

• What are the instructional opportunity evaluation criteria?

• What are the instructional opportunity evaluation tools?

• What is the evaluation data available?

• Are any revisions needed to be completed?



Sample Instruction Utilizing the ADDIE Approach


Utilizing the ADDIE model we have created a lesson as an example to teach Dental Hygiene students how to give an appropriate nutritional counseling.




Learner Analysis: The dental hygienist has been in college for two years. The basic learning skills are to have developed a strong working knowledge of the oral cavity, including: scaling, periodontal diseases, cavities and proper oral hygiene instructions. As they reach closer to graduation not only are the basic facts they only priority to the students. Proper nutrition is an important role to be able to maintain a healthy oral cavity. A nutritional counseling is part of their course competency completion. A dental hygienist as a preventive oral health care provider can be instrumental in recognizing systemic conditions related to nutritional deficiencies as well as to give recommendations to dietary alternatives.


Task Analysis: Want the students to be able to select a patient that has a nutritional deficiency due to a health issue and be able to incorporate it into their counseling session. In order to do this, they will need to review medical histories and be able choose the appropriate the patient.

This lesson will be delivered with PowerPoint presentations with slide shows. The classroom will need a working computer and current software installed. This lesson will be at least 45 minutes to 1 hour.




Learning Goals:

  1. Select an individual that may benefit from nutritional counseling. 
  2. Provide information and make recommendations without trying to completely change the patient's likes and dislikes.


Learning Objectives:

  1. Describe the correlation of nutrition and oral health. 
  2. Describe appropriate dental hygiene interventions for clients with systemic disease conditions with oral manifestations. 
  3. Provide dietary counseling to a client who is at risk for dental decay. 
  4. Discuss the importance of a thorough health, social, medical and dental history. 
  5. Identify the steps and considerations in implementing the dietary treatment plan. 
  6. Discuss several communication skills that are helpful for the dental hygienist to employ when counseling a patient. 


Instructional Strategy:

Students will participate in lesson activities to help them build a workbook with the proper nutritional recommendations; students will be given handouts and examples of nutritional counseling sessions; students will see a PowerPoint presentation.


Learning Activities:

Students will participate in learning activities so they will able to

1) Give a nutritional counseling,

2) Elaborate on material with his/her own words in order to demonstrate grasp of content and appropriate communication skills 

3) use illustrations to facilitate communication.



Materials developed:

• PowerPoint presentation with slides.

• Handout with counseling session sequence.

• Handout with learning strategies for counseling workbook.



Give counseling session

Determine how well the session is going; recommend adjustments to counseling as necessary.




Formative Evaluation – Evaluation from instructor

Instructor will do check off all the criteria that was given to the patient during the counseling session. Based on the instructor feedback, the student will be able to make changes to for future counseling.


Summative Evaluation:

Student will evaluate themselves in the nutritional counseling procedure. This is to be written as a separate paper. 




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